Classification of varieties
Tea plant is botanically classified as belonging to the family Tea (Theaceae), to the genus Tea (Tea) and according to morphological characteristics is divided into two types: Chinese (Thea Sinensis) and Assamese (Thea Assamica).
By technological characteristics, tea is divided into:
- Not soluble - white, green, yellow, red, black, pu-erh - which in turn are subdivided into:
sheet, granular (CTC), extruded:
- leaf tea according to the size of the tea leaves are divided into: whole leaf, broken, seeding (fannings), crumb (dust)
- granular tea according to the size of the tea leaves are divided into: broken (broken), seeding (fannings), crumbs (dust)
- Instant teas, which are divided into: liquid concentrates, dry powders, agglomerated and sublimation.
Tea Production Technology
All types of tea are made from freshly picked green tea leaves using various technologies. Schematically, this can be represented as follows:
- White tea: wilting / drying,
- Green tea: fixing, twisting, drying, sorting
- Yellow tea: wilting, fixing, curling, drying, sorting
- Red tea: wilting, curling, fermentation, fixing, curling, drying, sorting
- Black tea: wilting, curling, fermentation, drying, sorting
- Puerh: withering, curling, fermentation / fermentation, pressing
Sorting and blending of tea is a separate process performed both in primary and tea-packing (packaging) industries.
Tea marking, such as for example: OP, BOP, TGFOP, GBOP, BOPF, PF and similar abbreviations, is carried out in primary productions after sorting and allows tea traders (for example, brokers, at auctions) to pre-judge the size of tea leaves.
For the production of soluble types of tea, insoluble tea, ready to use, is used as raw material. The production technology of instant tea is similar to the production technology of instant coffee:
- Liquid Tea Extract: Extraction, Filtration, Concentration
- Powdered tea: liquid tea extract, spray drying
- Agglomerated tea: tea powder, agglomeration
- Freeze-dried tea: liquid tea extract, freeze-drying
The main countries producing tea are listed below.:
China, India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Turkey, Indonesia, Japan, Argentina, Bangladesh, Uganda, Malawi, Tanzania, Myanmar, Iran, Taiwan, Rwanda, Nepal, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Zimbabwe, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Congo / Zaire, Mauritius, Mozambique, South Africa, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Australia
Пprinciple of trade
Tea is an auction item traded in major auction centers in tea-producing countries - Colombo (Sri Lanka), Kolkata (India), Guwahati (India), Coonoor (India), Mombasa (Kenya), Jakarta (Indonesia). There are no auction centers in China, but there are large specialized tea markets.
World tea production by major countries
|Manufacturer country||Volume of production, tons|
|China||+2 700 000|
|India||+1 389 700|
|Sri Lanka||300 134|
|Other countries||711 956|
|TOTAL||+5 752 783|
Top 5 Tea Exporting Countries in the World
|Manufacturer country||Export volume, tons|
|Шри Ланка||289 586|
Top 5 tea importing countries in the world
|Manufacturer country||The volume of net imports |
minus re-export, tons